Study: Legislators Must Answer Key Questions Before Setting Policy for App-Based Rideshare/Delivery Workers

Share on Facebook
Share on Twitter
Share on
LinkedIn
+

Big Data industries require data-driven policymaking

BOSTON – After Massachusetts’ Supreme Judicial Court declared an initiative that was to appear on the November ballot unconstitutional, the issue of how to classify app-based rideshare/delivery workers is back in the hands of the state Legislature.  A new study published by Pioneer Institute distills from the research literature eight questions legislators must answer before determining how to address this fast-growing industry.

“It may be surprising to many, but policy makers lack the most basic information about the gig workforce,” said Tom Ahn, author of “What We Do and Don’t Know about Online Platform Rideshare/Delivery Workers in Massachusetts.”  “It is not an exaggeration to say that they don’t know who or how big the gig workforce is, and they don’t know its motivations.”

The issues surrounding reclassification are well known. App firms would be required to provide employee benefits, pay increased taxes, and standardize or guarantee a minimum wage. They may have to take a more active role in maintenance and monitoring of vehicles, provide or subsidize access to insurance, and be required to set and manage shift schedules for drivers.

The app firms argue that reclassification would adversely impact their businesses, increasing financial, administrative, and legal overhead. They fear it would lead to the exodus of its workforce, which they see as having heterogeneous preferences, with many workers placing a high value on work schedule flexibility. Reduced flexibility could force out workers unable or unwilling to adhere to a fixed schedule, and the prospect of a predictable income and schedule may make the job more attractive to others.

The report urges legislators to answer eight basic questions, summarized below, before beginning to deliberate on legislation related to the app-based rideshare and delivery industry.  Most fundamentally, we must understand who is engaged in gig work and why.

Currently available data does not allow us to understand or provide a definitive description of the workforce. Firm surveys of workers often fail to collect basic socio-demographic characteristics, and the large amount of worker churn makes data accurate today less relevant tomorrow.

Policymakers do not know the size of the online platform rideshare/delivery workforce. The gig workforce is experiencing fast growth, such that almost 10 percent of the working population has engaged in some online gig work in the past, but research findings on the current size of the workforce range tremendously, from 1 to 15 percent of the labor force.

There is substantial evidence that people choose gig work as a supplementary source of financial stability. Worker surveys show that a majority of gig workers feel that firms have been fair with respect to pay and assignments, see themselves as independent contractors rather than employees, and rate their job experience favorably.

But there is no consensus on how much drivers earn. Because so much of the compensation depends on drivers’ own choices as well as the pricing set by the apps, researchers can arrive at very different numbers.

Finally, there have been few credible studies of gig workers in Massachusetts, seeking to understand whether there are differences between the workforce here and elsewhere.

“On issues where there are widely differing policy perspectives, it is best to start with the data—and that’s especially true with Big Data innovations, which disrupt the status quo,” said Jim Stergios, Pioneer Institute’s executive director. “Starting from good data, the legislature needs to develop smart policies to ensure and expand economic opportunity for the workforce.”

About the Author

Tom Ahn is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Defense Management at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS). After serving in the South Korean army for three-years, he completed a two-year post-doctorate position at Duke University. He taught at the University of Kentucky for seven-years and has been at NPS since 2017. Ahn has pub­lished in Journal of Econometrics, Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, and Journal of Urban Economics.

About Pioneer

Pioneer Institute develops and communicates dynamic ideas that advance prosperity and a vibrant civic life in Massachusetts and beyond. Success for Pioneer is when the citizens of our state and nation prosper and our society thrives because we enjoy world-class options in education, healthcare, transportation and economic opportunity, and when our government is limited, accountable and transparent. Pioneer believes that America is at its best when our citizenry is well-educated, committed to liberty, personal responsibility, and free enterprise, and both willing and able to test their beliefs based on facts and the free exchange of ideas.

Get Updates on Our Economic Opportunity Research

Study: Graduated Income Tax Proposal Fails to Protect Taxpayers from Bracket Creep

The state constitutional amendment proposed by the Service Employees International Union and the Massachusetts Teachers Association to add a 4 percent surtax to all annual income above $1 million purports to use cost-of-living-based bracket adjustments as a safeguard that will ensure only millionaires will pay. But historic income growth trends suggest that bracket creep will cause many non-millionaires to be subject to the surtax over time, according to a new study published by Pioneer Institute.

New Study Warns Graduated Income Tax Will Harm Many Massachusetts Retirees

If passed, a constitutional amendment to impose a graduated income tax would raid the retirement plans of Massachusetts residents by pushing their owners into higher tax brackets on the sales of homes and businesses, according to a new study published by Pioneer Institute. The study, entitled “The Graduated Income Tax Trap: A retirement tax on small business owners,” aims to help the public fully understand the impact of the proposed new tax.

Study: Graduated Income Tax Proponents Rely on Analyses That Exclude the Vast Majority Of “Millionaires” to Argue Their Case

Advocates for a state constitutional amendment that would apply a 4 percent surtax to households with annual earnings of more than $1 million rely heavily on the assumption that these proposed taxes will have little impact on the mobility of high earners. They cite analyses by Cornell University Associate Professor Cristobal Young, which exclude the vast majority of millionaires, according to a new study published by Pioneer Institute.

Report Contrasts State Government and Private Sector Employment Changes During Pandemic

Massachusetts state government employment has been virtually flat during COVID-19 even as employment in the state’s private sector workforce remains nearly 10 percent below pre-pandemic levels, according to a new study published by Pioneer Institute. The study, “Public vs. Private Employment in Massachusetts: A Tale of Two Pandemics,” questions whether it makes sense to shield public agencies from last year’s recession at the expense of taxpayers.

Study Finds Massachusetts Graduated Income Tax May Be a “Blank Check” and Not Increase Funding for Designated Priorities

Advocates claim a proposed 4 percent surtax on high earners will raise nearly $2 billion per year for education and transportation, but similar tax hikes in other states resulted in highly discretionary rather than targeted spending, according to a new policy brief published by Pioneer Institute. That same result or worse is possible in Massachusetts because during the 2019 constitutional convention state legislators rejected — not just one, but two — proposed amendments requiring that the new revenues be directed to these purposes.

Report: Proposed Graduated Income Tax Might Not Increase State Education and Transportation Spending

While supporters of a state constitutional amendment that would impose a 4 percent tax rate hike on annual income over $1 million claim additional revenue from the surtax will fund public education and transportation needs, the amendment in no way assures that there will be new spending on these priorities. In fact, without violating the amendment, total state education and transportation funding could stay the same or even fall, according to a new review published by Pioneer Institute.

New Study Highlights Economic Fallout from California’s 2012 Tax Hike

A 2012 income and sales tax increase in California, named “Proposition 30,” stifled business activity, accelerated out-migration among the wealthy, and ultimately reduced the state’s tax base, according to a new study published by Pioneer Institute that aims to share empirical data about the impact of tax policy decisions.

New Study Finds Pandemic-Spurred Technologies Lowered Barriers to Exit in High-Cost States

Both employers and households will find it easier to leave major job centers as technologies made commonplace by the COVID-19 pandemic have led to a rethinking of the geography of work, according to a new study published by Pioneer Institute.