As we celebrate Thanksgiving this week, it is worth reflecting on the history of this very American holiday, and of the unique contributions that Native Americans have made to our country. We hope you will enjoy re-reading this 2012 op-ed authored by Pioneer’s Jamie Gass, originally published in several regional news outlets.
Mass. students miss out on Native American history
By Jamie Gass
Since 1990, four United States Presidents have proclaimed November National Native American Heritage Month. Unfortunately, most of the commonwealth’s students are unaware of Indians’ innumerable contributions to our country.
When Christopher Columbus landed in the Caribbean islands on his quest to reach Asia, he mistakenly believed he’d reached the Indian Ocean and referred to the native peoples he encountered as indios, Spanish for “Indians.”
Massachusetts’ name is derived from the Native American tribe in the Milton and Blue Hills area anmeans “near the great hill.” There were three major Indian tribes in the commonwealth: the Wampanoags, Mohegans, and Mohicans.
Adopted in 1780, Massachusetts’ seal portrays an Algonquian tribesman with a bow and arrow; the arrow is held downward, symbolizing peace.
From Connecticut to Alaska and Oregon to Alabama, over half the states have Native American names, while Chicago, Milwaukee, Cheyenne, Seattle, and Miami are among the cities with Indian identifiers. Numerous rivers, including the Missouri, Mississippi, Arkansas, Ohio and Chattahoochee, have Indian origins.
Native American identities are also deeply imprinted within the classics of American literature.
James Fenimore Cooper’s fictional character Chingachgook, caught in the middle of the French and Indian War, was “The Last of the Mohicans.” “The Pequod” was the name of Captain Ahab’s ship in Herman Melville’s “Moby Dick.” Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s epic poem, “The Song of Hiawatha,” was based on the tales of the Ojibwe tribe of Lake Superior.
Famously, Squanto, a Patuxet, aided the Pilgrims after their severe first winter, which we celebrate on Thanksgiving. Shoshone tribeswoman Sacajawea is revered as a guide and interpreter for Meriwether Lewis and William Clark during their Corps of Discovery of the West in 1804-1806. Other important Native American historical figures include the Lakota warrior Crazy Horse and the Apache chieftain Geronimo.
The Cherokee Sequoyah’s writing system, the Nez Perce leader Chief Joseph’s resistance to federal removal policies, and the Lakota tribal chief Sitting Bull’s vision for defeating Lt. Col. George Custer at the Battle of Little Bighorn in 1876 are milestones of American Indian history.
The United States government’s violent policies towards native peoples are among our worst national disgraces. There was Andrew Jackson’s murderous treatment of the Creeks and Seminoles in 1814-18. Then, during the 1831-38 “Trail of Tears,” 10,000 Cherokees and Choctaws died as nearly 50,000 members of five tribes were forcibly removed from their homelands in the southeast.
In 1881, Amherst-raised Helen Hunt Jackson published “A Century of Dishonor,” which recounted the U.S. government’s grave injustices against American Indians. Nine years later, at the Wounded Knee Massacre in South Dakota, the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment killed 300 Lakota Sioux men, women and children.
Understanding the complexity our country’s Native American past requires knowing U.S. history. Regrettably, on the civics portion of the 2010 National Assessment of Educational Progress, known as the Nation’s Report Card, over two-thirds of America’s students scored below “proficient.”
Preferring softer 21st century skills like “media awareness” and “systems thinking” to academics, the Patrick administration in 2009 postponed a requirement, starting with the class of 2012, that Massachusetts public school students pass a U.S. history MCAS test to graduate from high school.
“Evidently Governor Patrick, a casino gambling advocate, believes commercializing Native American identities via their decorous use for casinos, slot machines, and craps tables is the best way to teach cross-cultural competence in the 21st century,” said anthropologist, Dr. Peter Wood, author of “Diversity: The Invention of a Concept.”
While the casino plans move forward, Massachusetts education officials claim we can’t afford to administer U.S. history MCAS tests. But state legislators, who appropriate the money, disagree. In a recent poll, more than two-thirds (68 percent) of the legislators surveyed said they could find the $2.4 million needed within the $4.5 billion the state spends annually on K-12 public education (local taxpayers contribute another $4.5 billion).
“Our Indian races having reared no monuments, like the Greeks, Romans, and Egyptians,” wrote Salem’s Nathaniel Hawthorne in his 1837 journal, “when they have disappeared from the earth their history will appear a fable and they misty phantoms.” So that our schoolchildren’s knowledge of Native American heritage doesn’t simply fade away too, isn’t it time to reinstate the U.S. history MCAS test?
Jamie Gass directs the Center for School Reform at Pioneer Institute, a Boston-based think tank.
This article originally appeared in several regional news outlets, including the Fall River Herald News. Read it here.
Pioneer Institute respects Governor Jeb Bush’s education reform accomplishments in Florida and even honored him at a 2010 event. Unfortunately, at today’s opening of the Foundation for Excellence in Education National Summit on Education Reform, held in Washington, D.C., Governor Bush continues to misrepresent the facts around Common Core national education standards.
In his speech today, Governor Bush argued that the Common Core is a high standard and that “the rigor of the Common Core State Standards must be the new minimum in classrooms.” With the Core aiming to instruct and test Algebra I in grades 9 and 10, and with a substantial reduction in the high-quality literature in the standards, the Core is hardly a set of standards that will cause fear in high-performing countries or economic competitors like China, India, and Japan.
Moreover, the Core is not a “minimum” or, as Governor Bush has suggested in other venues, a “floor.” The PARCC and SBAC tests clearly determine when content will be taught. The establishment of teacher evaluations tied to these tests only underscores how the Core is both a floor and a ceiling on student learning.
Numerous independent studies have demonstrated Common Core’s shortcomings, which include:
– Mediocre academic quality in both ELA and math that falls far short of the best of the previous state standards
– Legal issues related to the federal government’s incentivizing the adoption of national standards and funding the two national testing consortia
– Prohibitive costs and unfunded federal mandates imposed on states and localities
– Issues associated with protection of student privacy and data collection
It is becoming increasingly clear that the federal Race to the Top grant by which a majority of states adopted Common Core is barely a race to the middle in terms of academic quality.
While we respect some of his accomplishments while in office, it must be remembered that the Governor’s home state of Florida is still a below-average-performer on the National Assessment of Educational Progress, known as the Nation’s Report Card. To achieve global competitiveness in K-12 education, America must do better than a one-size-fits-all set of mediocre standards.
It’s not just Common Core’s standards and the curriculum teachers are putting into place to address those standards that are dumbing our kids down. Our colleges are contributing in their own way to the problem by the books they assign incoming freshmen to read in the summer for their first “common experience.”
As Beach Books: 2013-2014 (www.NAS.org) notes, “most colleges seek to build community through their common reading programs.” Lest anyone think this experience means a book requiring high school-level reading skill, never mind college-level reading skill, the reading level of the most frequently assigned books (those assigned 5 or more times) should dispel that myth. The average reading level for the 5 of the top 7 books assigned as summer reading by 341 colleges and whose readability levels are based on Renaissance Learning’s readability formula (ATOS for Books), available at http://www.arbookfind.com/UserType.aspx, is 7.56 (grade 7, sixth month).
- The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot: 13 assignments (RL: 8.1)
- This I Believe by Jay Allison and Dan Gediman: 11 assignments
- The Other Wes Moore by Wes Moore: 9 assignments (RL: 7.1)
- Wine to Water by Doc Hendley: 6 assignments
- Little Princes: One Man’s Promise to Bring Home the Lost Children of Nepal by Conor Grennan: 6 assignments (RL: 6.1)
- Full Body Burden: Growing Up in the Nuclear Shadow of Rocky Flats by Kristen Iversen: 5 assignments (RL: 7.0)
- Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity for Women Worldwide by Nicholas Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn: 5 assignments (RL: 9.5)
When we go deeper into the list, the level gets lower. Of the 53 most frequently mentioned titles listed in Beach Books: 2013-2014, the readability levels of 23 were available, with an average ATOS book level of 6.8. The highest ATOS book level found so far is 10.2 for Salt Sugar Fat: How the Food Giants Hooked Us by Michael Moss (assigned twice). The lowest ATOS book level found so far is 4.0 for The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian by Alexie Sherman (also assigned twice).
Based on the information available, it seems that our colleges are not demanding a college-level reading experience for incoming freshmen. Nor are they sending a signal to the nation’s high schools that high school-level reading is needed for college readiness. Indeed, they seem to be suggesting that a middle school-level of reading is satisfactory, even though most college textbooks and adult literary works written before 1970 require mature reading skills.
However, our colleges can’t easily develop college-level reading skills if most students admitted to a post-secondary institution in this country read even high school-level textbooks with difficulty. Strong growth in reading starts in the elementary school. And it must include student willingness to read regularly in and outside school, a practice that hinges on kids “getting hooked on books.”
As the spirit animating Brave New World penetrates ever more deeply the nation’s language arts curricula in the name of Common Core, school administrators and curriculum specialists need to be reminded of what elementary and middle school children are missing if their teachers give them a steady and heavy diet of “informational” texts, dystopian literature (e.g., The Hunger Games), and realistic “narrative” fiction filled with sex and violence (see Young Adult Literature). The rich body of children’s literature written in the 19th and early 20th centuries helped millions of English-speaking children in the past to view reading as an enrichment to their lives, not as an alarm bell for global catastrophe or as a springboard for fear and depression. By listening to or reading the books and poems written for them, they would:
- Experience a pleasurable fantasy world (e.g., James and the Giant Peach, The Phantom Tollbooth, Peter Pan)
- Experience an exciting adventure (e.g., Treasure Island)
- Expand their imaginations (e.g., Mary Poppins)
- Develop an ear for wordplay with the sounds of the English language and for humor (e.g., poems by Laura Richardson, Edward Lear, Lewis Carroll)
- Stretch their attention spans, especially when young (e.g., Babar the Elephant, Cat in the Hat Comes Back, The Roly-Poly Pudding)
- Empathize with other people’s feelings and problems (The Secret Garden)
- Widen their cultural horizons as they vicariously learned about the world (Around the World in 80 Days)
For almost 100 years, there have been many surveys in this country of what children prefer to read. Despite changes in immigration patterns, family literacy, and cultural influences, the overall differences between boys and girls have been relatively stable across the decades. Boys prefer adventure stories, military exploits, sports heroes, and historical nonfiction. Girls prefer books about people’s relationships and animal stories. But, as all teachers know, both love fantasy (e.g., the Harry Potter series). There are no shortages of books in most school and public libraries that children enjoy reading, whether or not there are books in children’s homes.
Today, however, teachers need help from parents in getting children “hooked on books.” They, too, can’t do it all by themselves, certainly not with grim, humorless, social issue-oriented books flooding the curriculum. Kids need to practice reading every day on their own, and enjoy it. The school day and the school week are not long enough for all the reading practice needed if all students are to become high school diploma-ready, never mind “college-ready.”
Public libraries can:
- Provide lists of counting, alphabet, and imaginative books available in their libraries.
- Put lists in pediatricians’ offices and in community boxes in public parks.
Local school boards can:
- Adopt a first-class set of English language arts standards. Local schools can add whatever they want to the state board of education’s adopted standards. There’s no law against it. And local school boards can require their own teachers to make up their own tests of these added standards, give grades, and send them home to parents.
- Strengthen the literature standards in Common Core if they want teachers to teach to them, too. Choice of texts to read can be guided by many sources: the Core Knowledge lists are among the many lists available on the web.
- Require every elementary and middle school to develop a writing folder that shows what each child is doing in every subject at each grade in the school. Every month, teacher and student select a paper from every subject (e.g., science, spelling, math, grammar, history) to put into it. A student’s reading skills will be reflected in these papers. The family should be able to see the writing folder every year at a Back-to-School Night or at a parent-teacher conference. Folders should be given to students’ families after they complete the last grade in the school they attend.
Distribute to all teachers of young children a copy of Appendix A in the Curriculum Framework for English Language Arts that I have made available free of charge and copyright to all school districts and states (see below). Appendix A was vetted by the editors of The Horn Book, the premier children’s literature quarterly in the country. It lists the names of authors whose works are culturally or historically significant for English-speaking people.
State legislatures can:
Establish volunteer-staffed neighborhood-based programs for young parents to learn from volunteers (1) how to read children’s stories to their children; (2) how to take them to a public library to choose books that appeal to them; (3) how to establish a reading hour at home to make sure children spend at least one hour reading at home.
College or University Faculty, Presidents, Chancellors, and Provosts can:
Require a college-level book as summer reading for newly admitted college freshmen and let the high schools from which their freshmen graduated know its title and reading level. Appropriation committees in the state legislature can tie the amount of money allotted for “Beach Books” to the reading level of the book selected by the college faculty/president.
K-12 education policy too often is the province of powerful special interests. It is important for candidates for public office to speak directly to citizens and parents about what they will do for the next generation of schoolchildren if elected.
That’s why we invited all five Massachusetts gubernatorial candidates to respond to a questionnaire on K-12 education policy. Our purpose is to share their views on eight big education issues relevant to what children learn in the classroom, career and college preparation, and equitable choices for all families.
All of the gubernatorial candidates responded to our questionnaire, with the exception of Martha Coakley. As soon as we receive her responses, we will share them with you as well. A few quick highlights:
- All of the participating candidates support lifting the cap on charter schools.
- Three of the participating candidates expressed support for expanding access to vocational-technical schools.
- Three of the participating candidates support reinstating the US History MCAS exam as a high school graduation requirement.
Question 1: Massachusetts’ 1993 Education Reform Act dedicated substantial new money toward K-12 public education. In return, it also included a number of controversial reforms like MCAS, charter schools and teacher testing. Some issues, like extending the school day and expanding public pre-K offerings, are relatively non-controversial. As governor, what more politically difficult reforms would you push to ensure that every public school student in Massachusetts has access to educational opportunity?
Charlie BakerWe need to directly and urgently address the needs of students who are stuck in the Commonwealth’s lowest performing schools and districts. The Patrick administration deserves credit for the progressive approach it has taken to comprehensive reform in Lawrence. In particular, Commissioner Chester and Superintendent Riley have significantly reduced the size of the central bureaucracy, reallocated resources to schools and empowered principals to make decisions about staffing, budget and programs. Equally important, they have reached out to private partners and charter operators to add capacity and directly manage schools. This strategy of creating a diverse and accountable system of autonomous schools (including charter schools), rather than a centrally managed school system is a model that is working in Lawrence and in a growing number of urban districts around the country. As Governor, I would build on our experience in Lawrence to expand our capacity for similar state-local partnerships, or receiverships if necessary.
Separately, years of research has convincingly shown that there is little or no connection between dollars spent on education and academic outcomes. Of course, we should constantly evaluate whether we are spending the right amount – either too much or too little – in every line item of the state budget, including Chapter 70. But, far more important than how much is spent, is how well it’s spent. I plan to commission independent fiscal reviews of the Commonwealth’s largest school districts to determine how they could restructure their central offices and administrative functions in order to reduce overhead, empower school-level leadership, and free-up resources for increased student learning opportunities, including early education and extended day programs.
Martha CoakleyNo response.
Evan FalchukEducation funding has not kept pace with the increasing cost of educating students. In spite of Chapter 70’s requirement that the formula for the foundation budget be updated regularly, it has not been updated in a decade. The basics of funding education seem to be “politically difficult.” My top education priority is to immediately revise the Chapter 70 funding formula to more accurately reflect what it costs to educate a child in the second decade of the 21st century.
Scott LivelyI believe the primary factor in educational success is parental involvement and that government is a poor substitute for parents in raising and educating children. I favor an educational choice voucher system that includes home-schooling as one of the choices. I would shift the emphasis of the department of education to helping families guide and direct the education of their own children. I would dramatically downsize the centralized bureaucracy to free money for more teachers and shift control of public schools to cities and towns. In public schools I would launch a pilot project to introduce a cohort educational model in which groups of children stay together for the core curriculum from start to finish like a family rather than taking classes ala carte (except for electives).
Jeff McCormickFirst, we need to lift the cap on charter schools. Charter schools are designed to bring innovation and experimentation to the classroom to get better results for our kids. The legislature dropped the ball on this issue during the most recent session. As Governor, I will file legislation to immediately lift the cap to provide more opportunities for our students. Secondly, we need to expand the communication between charter schools and traditional public schools to share best practices across districts to benefit all of our students. I have visited districts where there is no communication between the charter schools and traditional public schools. That is not in the best interest of the kids. As Governor, I will hold regional summits on education with all parties involved to make sure we are sharing our best practices across the state at the highest level.
Question 2: In the wake of the Education Reform Act, Massachusetts saw historic improvements in educational achievement. Our students are consistently the country’s best performers and in 2007 they scored among the best in the world in international math and science testing. But since then the data has been far less encouraging. The commonwealth’s SAT scores are down 20 points from their 2006 highs, the percentage of third-graders scoring advanced or proficient on MCAS has fallen to the lowest level since 2009, and the portion of third graders who are proficient in reading is 10 percentage points lower than it was in 2002. As governor, how do you plan to address this stagnating student achievement?
Charlie BakerMassachusetts is rightly recognized as having one of the best public education systems in the country, thanks to the high standards established in the 1990s and the talent and hard-work of our teachers and school leaders. Nevertheless, elementary reading scores have stagnated or fallen, large numbers of high school graduates are not prepared for college or the workforce, and we continue to see staggering achievement gaps between communities and across student sub-groups. There is no silver bullet to fix these persistent problems, but there are promising strategies that are working here and around the country that we should adopt or expand.
First, we need to redouble our commitment to high expectations and accountability for results by ensuring that Massachusetts continues to have world-class academic standards and assessments (see question 3, below). Second, we need to directly and urgently address the needs of students who are stuck in the Commonwealth’s lowest performing schools and districts by expanding the DESE’s capacity to intervene effectively with a comprehensive strategy for whole-system change, building on our recent success in Lawrence (see question 1, above). Third, we need to help districts restructure their central offices and administrative functions in order to reduce overhead, empower school-level leadership, and free-up resources for increased student learning opportunities, including early education and extended day programs (see question 1, above). Fourth, we must strengthen our successful career and technical schools, expanding their capacity and increasing the impact of partnerships with employers, while creating opportunities for all students to develop critical workplace skills with real work experience before they graduate from high school (see question 5, below). Finally, we need to build on the tremendous success of our charter schools by removing the arbitrary restrictions that prevent the growth of successful charters and block the introduction of new talent and innovative school models (see question 4, below).
By the end of my first term, I hope to see the following results from the education reform initiatives described above:
- 1. Significant improvement in the rates of both proficient and advanced performance on the state’s annual assessment and NAEP, especially in elementary reading and among low-income students; significant improvement in graduation rates for low-income students and in the percentage of high school graduates who enroll in college without having to take remedial courses
- 2. Effective state-led interventions in the 5 lowest performing school districts and 50 lowest performing schools
- 3. Significant increase in the number of low-income students with access to high-quality early education programs and longer school days or expanded learning time programs
- 4. Significant increase in the percentage of students who graduate high school with meaningful work experience and certified job skills in high-demand occupations
- 5. 50 new charter schools
Martha CoakleyNo response.
Evan FalchukIt was important that in the last legislative session that the cap on charter schools was lifted, while at the same time it is troubling that funding for cities and towns through Chapter 70 continues to lag well behind the need. Improving funding includes ensuring that every school has the resources it needs to help every student who may be at risk of not achieving their potential does so. Last, it is important that education is not overly focused on standardized tests. The skills students require in the 21st century require critical thinking and creativity – excessive reliance on standardized testing undervalues that capacity in both teacher and student.
Scott LivelyI believe in the back-to-basics approach to education along classical lines. Students should be taught how to learn, not what to memorize and given broad freedom and latitude to pursue their own interests within set parameters. I would emphasize critical thinking, debate, research and communications skills in addition to mastery of reading, hard (not soft) science and math. I would require every graduating student to demonstrate familiarity with the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution and key writings of the Founding Fathers such as the Mayflower Compact and George Washington’s Inaugural and Farewell addresses.
Jeff McCormick43% of our third graders are not proficient in reading. That is unacceptable. Studies have shown that early education increases test scores, lowers drop-out rates, and will pay for the investment over time. I have a plan to provide early education services to all 4 year olds in the state, regardless of income level. This will help working families by lowering childcare costs and allowing stay-at-home parents to return to the workforce sooner. This is not an unfunded mandate on cities and towns because it will be paid for through efficiencies in our state’s healthcare budget. At 42% of the state budget, healthcare currently consumes almost half of our state budget. While we will see improved tests scores over time, we will ultimately close the skills gap and decrease income inequality. I also believe we need to allow teachers and schools more flexibility in teaching and implementing curricula for their particular students. What works in Lawrence might not work in Wellesley.
Question 3: Among the parts of the 1993 Education Reform Act that transformed public education in Massachusetts were academic standards in English and math that were aligned with MCAS and became a national model. In 2010, the state Board of Elementary and Secondary Education jettisoned those standards for ones that were developed by Washington, D.C.-based education trade groups and promoted by the federal government and wealthy private foundations. Do you support so-called Common Core or do you prefer the commonwealth’s homegrown standards?
Charlie BakerThe future of our economy depends on having a highly educated workforce that is second to none, not just in the United States, but globally. Being above average isn’t good enough. Although there is some value in having academic standards that are consistent across state lines, Massachusetts must ultimately control its own destiny to ensure that its academic standards are truly be world class. We can’t settle for anything less. I testified against adopting the Common Core standards in 2010. Today, Common Core is being implemented in classrooms throughout the Commonwealth and the aligned PARCC assessments will be widely piloted in 2015. We must conduct a thorough, rigorous and independent evaluation of the PARCC pilot test results to determine whether we are setting a higher standard. If we are not, I will not hesitate to pull Massachusetts out of Common Core and the PARCC consortium.
Martha CoakleyNo response.
Evan FalchukI support MCAS standards rather than Common Core.
Scott LivelyI strongly oppose Common Core and believe it takes us in the wrong direction. We need less not more control of schools and children by government bureaucrats.
Jeff McCormickI believe we need to support the Common Core standards that are stronger than our current standards and jettison those that are weaker. We can’t go backwards when it comes to standards. We need to push everyone in the education system to the top of their abilities. I also believe that local officials do a better job for their town than the state, and I believe the state does a better job than the federal government. When you are on the front lines dealing with problems, you know what the solutions are. That is why I chose Yarmouth Board of Selectmen member Tracy Post as my running mate.
Question 4: Stanford University researchers found that Massachusetts has the nation’s best charter schools and that Boston charters are doing more to close achievement gaps than any other group of public schools in the country. Harvard and MIT researchers have reached similar conclusions about Boston charter schools. Despite these results, an effort to increase the number of charter schools in low-performing school districts recently failed. As governor, what would you do to support the Commonwealth’s charter schools?
Charlie BakerCharters are not only providing thousands of underserved students with access to high-quality schools, they are also empowering low-income urban parents with choices that were once reserved for wealthier suburban families. Denying them these options when they are so readily available is nothing less than an affront to their civil rights. I will work with the legislature and BESE over the next four years to significantly increase the number of charter schools, especially in low-performing districts with failing schools.
Martha CoakleyNo response.
Evan FalchukThe cap on charter schools should be lifted. At the same time we must fulfill our responsibility to properly fund our public schools by updating and modernizing our Chapter 70 funding formula to reflect the cost of educating children in the public schools, as well as the costs associated with kids going to charter schools.
Scott LivelyI strongly support Charter Schools and would like to see more of them and a wider variety of alternative models. I graduated in 1976 from an alternative “Free School” in Greenfield that featured a cohort model of 12 students in a cooperative approach. It was a wonderfully rich and exciting environment in which to learn (especially in comparison to my previous standard high school experience that bored me to tears and inspired me to habitual truancy). I would love to give Massachusetts students the opportunity to experience that sort of self-directed learning in a family-style setting.
Jeff McCormickI have visited many charter schools throughout this campaign and have seen their amazing results in educating our kids. Most schools aren’t pristine facilities and don’t have the technology that some of our wealthier districts possess, but they are still level one schools. As Governor, I will push to lift the cap on charter schools but also keep a vigilant eye on the outcomes from these schools. Charter schools are not a silver bullet, but they will receive support from my administration.
Question 5: The performance of regional vocational-technical school students on MCAS has improved by 40-50 percent in recent years and the schools also provide outstanding vocational training. Not surprisingly, the number of applications to these schools is on the rise and most have large waiting lists. As governor, what would you do to provide more students access to high-quality, regional voc-tech schools?
Charlie BakerAlthough the focus of our education reform efforts over the past 20 years has been rightly on getting more students ready for success in college, we must now pay more attention to ensuring all of our high school graduates are also prepared for success in the workplace. Specifically, we should look for opportunities to expand the student capacity of our existing career and technical schools, while upgrading their curriculum and technology to more closely align with current workplace needs. As Governor, I will also direct the Board of Higher Education to extend the reach and increase the impact of our highest performing career and technical schools by inviting proposals to give them authority to grant associate degrees, either directly or in partnership with a public or private college. At the same time, the state must take forceful action to turnaround those career and technical schools that are failing to meet the needs of their students and the local economy. Career education should not be the sole purview of our career and technical schools; we should also actively explore innovative approaches to creating new career-oriented high schools and pathways within existing schools, in close collaboration with local employers and including extensive co-op or internship experiences.
Martha CoakleyNo response.
Evan FalchukDynamic changes like this is part of why the state must be regularly updating the way in which it supports cities and towns with education dollars. We must increase funding for these programs, as they represent an important opportunity for students to get ahead and become productive – taxpaying – members of society.
Scott LivelyVocational schools fill an important role in our educational system that seems to be working. I would like to see more of them and would also facilitate greater involvement of community businesses and industries to allow for a smoother transition from school to work for students on a vocational track.
Jeff McCormickVocational-technical schools must be a part of the education landscape because not all jobs require a two or four year college degree. I recently visited Blackstone Valley Voc-tech in Upton and was extremely encouraged by what the students were learning. These kids are getting real world on-the-job training skills that they can use before they graduate. In addition, they are being taught the soft skills that employers look for like the importance of showing up on time and working hard. As baby boomers retire, we are going to have a real workforce crisis in this state to replace the knowledge base and skills of these workers. That is why my education plan calls for transitioning Madison Park Vocational Technical School in Boston into a healthcare workforces training school with the help of the surrounding world class hospitals and institutions. We know the jobs are going to be available, let’s train our students to have the skills to fill these jobs.
Question 6: Data shows that the METCO program which allows students in Boston and Springfield attend schools in nearby suburbs, is closing the achievement gap and improving educational outcomes. But budget cuts in recent years have resulted in approximately 10,000 students – about three times more than are in the program – being on two-to-five year waitlists. As governor, what would you do to expand access to METCO for needy students?
Charlie BakerMETCO provides urban children of color with much needed school options outside their home districts. As a matter of principle and policy, we should strive to provide all children and their families with as many high-quality school choices as possible. To ensure METCO is sustainable over time, we should explore alternative financing options that do not rely solely on annual state appropriations. We should also consider new incentives for the expansion of other inter-district choice programs, especially for low-income students in and around the Commonwealth’s urban centers.
Martha CoakleyNo response.
Evan FalchukThe METCO program has extremely positive benefits for the children who participate. While my main focus is to improve every school district by revising the Foundation Budget, I believe we must take active steps to continue to provide opportunities for parents who want their children to have the opportunity to enroll in a different school through the METCO program. Wait lists for government programs like METCO reflect a need for not just sufficient funding for those programs, but to address the underlying causes of people wanting to join them, which is why it is so critical to revise the Foundation Budget.
Scott LivelyNo Response.
Jeff McCormickAs Governor, I will increase access to METCO for students by increasing funding in the short term but also working with Boston and Springfield to achieve better outcomes so these students can go to school in their own neighborhoods. I am a believer in building communities from the ground up. We need to improve the schools in these areas so kids are allowed to attend school close to home and receive an education on par with those students who live in the suburbs.
Question 7: U.S. history standards and testing were part of Massachusetts’ education reform law. But in 2009, the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education cancelled U.S. history MCAS implementation, citing the $2.4 million cost. What is your position on reinstating passage of a U.S. history MCAS test as a high school graduation requirement?
Charlie BakerOne of the central purposes of public education is to prepare young people to be informed and engaged citizens. The Commonwealth acknowledges this mission by specifically requiring all students to study American history and civics – the only such academic requirement under state law. And yet, we do not have a measurable standard for ensuring that all students leave high school with a sufficient knowledge of our history and political system to fulfill their civic duty. I support reinstating the U.S. history MCAS test as a graduation requirement, as soon as possible.
Martha CoakleyNo response.
Evan FalchukIt is critical that every child knows the history of this country, and of our state. U.S. history – including civics – should be a mandatory requirement for graduation under MCAS.
Scott LivelyI believe it was Aristotle who first said (and was echoed by Cicero) “Those who fail to learn from history are doomed to repeat its tragedies.” We must inculcate in our students a knowledge of history. Not the modernist liberal edited version they are getting in classes today, but the real stuff, including heavy emphasis on primary sources, especially as regarding early American history. Testing that does not measure familiarity with the truth is worthless.
Jeff McCormickU.S. history should be reinstated as part of the MCAS to graduate from high school. Too many students, and adults for that matter, don’t know basic history. I believe that to understand the future we need to learn from the past. Also, Massachusetts is the birthplace of the American Revolution and our students need to know the important role our state played in the birth of our nation.
Question 8: The Florida Virtual School is considered the gold standard in on-line learning in America. Despite two legislative efforts to encourage on-line learning in Massachusetts, the Bay State lags 15 years behind leading states in virtual/on-line/blended learning. How would you remedy this?
Charlie BakerThere are currently two virtual schools that have been authorized by DESE for operation in the Commonwealth. We should continue to encourage and approve the development of additional independently managed on-line academies, especially those that address underserved student populations with a high degree of accountability for results. Equally important, Massachusetts must accelerate the development of blended learning school models, which combine web-based tools and content with in-person instruction, by working in partnership with private “accelerators” like LearnLaunch and by inviting innovative charter school applications that reimagine the traditional school design.
Martha CoakleyNo response.
Evan FalchukThe group of leaders we’ll convene will include experts in on-line learning. Given how far this field has come and student’s preferences, on-line learning will certainly be a bigger part of our educational system. However, in order to make this a reality we must first ensure that every school in the Commonwealth has access to broadband internet and every child has access to a computer in their school. I’m extremely concerned about how far behind we are in Massachusetts on this. Prioritizing these important investments and funding them through the reallocation of the huge amounts of money that is currently being misspent is key to my plans to bring about smart, brave reform in Massachusetts.
Scott LivelyI strongly support on-line learning, which incidentally is a big part of most home-schools. My educational choice voucher plan would allow parents who do not home-school to direct their children to private religious an secular schools which offer online learning. I would work to promote online learning in the government schools as well.
Jeff McCormickAs someone who sits on the board of an education company that uses technology to teach kids math in 41 states, we have increased scores across socio-economic groups, race, and ethnicity. The beauty of this program is that it is very cheap to implement. For under $20 per student per year, we have managed to deliver high quality education and increased scores by as much as 30%. As Governor, I will bring these types of solutions to our education system. We need to be a leader in using technology in education as a state.
Stanford University mathematics professor R. James Milgram included an informative e-mail in his packet of information for state legislators when he testified at a hearing on Common Core in Milledgeville, Georgia on September 24, 2014. The e-mail explains why presidents of many of the major mathematical organizations in the country endorsed Common Core’s standards in July 2013. The author of the e-mail seems to believe that the societies themselves would be unlikely to endorse Common Core’s standards, but that readers (i.e., the public) might be misled into thinking they had if they saw that the presidents had endorsed the standards. Consequently, the e-mail wants just the presidents’ signatures because they would “likely” be just as “effective.” The underlying assumption is that the members of these organizations would not be apt to learn what their presidents had done, much less know anything about the contents of Common Core’s mathematics standards.
Appendix A shows the letter that Ron Rosier, Director of the Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences (CBMS), sent to all society presidents on June 28, 2013. (Telephone numbers and personal e-mail addresses have been deleted.) Appendix B shows the “support statement” posted on July 24, 2013 by Professor William McCallum, a “lead” Common Core mathematics standards writer. It contains the signatures of all those who were willing to respond to Rosier’s request.
The appendices make it clear that the support statement was to be signed by the presidents of CBMS member societies as a personal expression of support, not on behalf of their organizations. But it is also clear that the presidents were to be identified by means of their organization, not academic affiliation. Nor were they asked to review the Common Core standards but, rather, to provide a promotional statement for the Common Core. The support statement was posted on CBMS stationery less than a month after the initial request for signatures was sent out.
It is worth noting that the somewhat hostile legislators at the Georgia hearing never asked Professor Milgram: “What about these endorsements?”